At the 2011 UN Climate Change Conference, the Durban Platform (and the ad hoc working group on the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action) were created to negotiate a legal instrument to mitigate climate change from 2020. The resulting agreement is expected to be adopted in 2015.  This article goes beyond mitigation obligations and examines how the adaptation, loss and injury provisions of the Paris Agreement are based on differentiation to enable combined top-down and bottom-up approaches to the overall cooperation objectives set out in Article 2, as defined by the UNFCCC and COP. It describes the fundamental aspects of the Paris Agreement and COP21`s follow-up decision on the treatment of adaptation, loss and damage, which allows the parties to work towards a qualitative goal based on the unique vulnerabilities and capabilities of the parties to respond to the effects of climate change. The agreement stated that it would only enter into force (and therefore fully effective) if 55 countries that produce at least 55% of global greenhouse gas emissions (according to a list drawn up in 2015)  ratify, accept, approve or adhere to the agreement.   On April 1, 2016, the United States and China, which together account for nearly 40% of global emissions, issued a joint statement confirming that the two countries would sign the Paris climate agreement.  175 contracting parties (174 states and the European Union) signed the agreement on the first day of its signing.   On the same day, more than 20 countries announced plans to join the accession as soon as possible in 2016. The ratification by the European Union has achieved a sufficient number of contracting parties to enter into force on 4 November 2016. The Paris Agreement, also known as the Paris Climate Agreement, is an agreement between leaders of more than 180 countries to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and limit global temperature increases to less than 2 degrees Celsius (3.6 F) above pre-industrial levels by 2100. Ideally, the agreement aims to keep increases below 1.5 degrees Celsius (2.7 F). Change (UNFCCC). To achieve the overall goal of the Paris Agreement, international and national cooperation is needed.
Article 7 “recognizes the importance of international support and cooperation in adaptation efforts.”  However, it does not impose any binding obligation on the parties. Rather, the article states that the parties should “implement” five listed measures on the exchange of political information, the strengthening of institutional agreements, assistance to developing countries in adaptation planning and the overall improvement of adaptation measures. In addition to inviting all parties to undertake these efforts, Article 7 encourages the United Nations to “support the parties` efforts to implement the [articulated] measures.”  Nor does this language require the cooperation of United Nations agencies. Parity culminated in two ways at COP20: 1) with negotiations on the elements necessary to include the parties in their planned national contributions (“INDC”) to be presented before COP21; and 2) at the heart of the new agreement.  It is likely that developed countries have argued that NDCs should focus exclusively on reduction. Developing countries disagreed and supported the inclusion of adaptation.  In the end, developing countries have emerged, as shown in the text of CoP20, which “refuses to include all parties in their commitments in adaptation planning or to include an adjustment element in their planned national contributions.”  The parties also agreed that the new legal instrument to be developed at COP21 would be “balanced” in terms of adaptation and mitigation.  The Paris Agreement has a bottom-up structure, unlike most international environmental treaties that are “top down,” characterized by internationally defined standards and objectives and must be implemented by states.  Unlike its predecessor, the Kyoto Protocol,